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Steven Kreis

Orwell Chronology

[George Orwell photo-portrait]

The George Orwell Archive is located at University College, London and “is the most comprehensive body of research material relating to the author George Orwell (Eric Blair) (1903-1950) anywhere. Manuscripts, notebooks and personalia of George Orwell were presented in 1960 on permanent loan by his widow on behalf of the George Orwell Archive Trust, supplemented by donations and purchases. The aim of the Trustees of the Archive was to make a research centre for Orwell studies, by bringing together all [Orwell's] printed works, including newspaper items; private correspondence; other private papers in the possession of his widow; printed matter other than his own which will help later generations to understand the controversies in which he was involved; and tape recordings or written statements by all with first hand experience of him of any consequence.”

Eric Arthur Blair born at Motihari, Bengal, India, June 25th, son of Richard Walmesley Blair and Ida Mabel Blair (née Limouzin)
Brought to England by his mother. Family settles in Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire
Educated at Sunnylands, an Anglican school, Eastbourne, Sussex
Boarder at St. Cyprian's preparatory school, Eastbourne, Sussex
Richard Blair, retired from India Civil Service, returns to England. Family moved to Shiplake near Henley
First work published: Awake Young Men of England (poem)
Blair family moves back to Henley
Spends Lent term at Wellington College
King's Scholar, Eton College
Parents move to Southwold, Suffolk (December)
Blair attends cramming establishment in Southwold (January-June), to prepare for India Office examinations
Assistant Superintendent of Police, Indian Imperial Police, Burma (photo)
Lives in Paris, writing and later working as a dishwasher. Hospitalized with Pneumonia (February)
Goes tramping in London and Home Counties. Writes early version of Down and Out in Paris and London. Contributes essays to Adelphi (The Spike and The Hanging) under his own name
Teaches at the Hawthorns, a small private school in Hayes, Middlesex
First book, Down and Out in Paris and London published by Victor Gollancz. Uses pseudonym “George Orwell” for the first time. Teaches at Frays College, Middlesex. Hospitalized with pneumonia
Gives up teaching. Spends ten months in Southwold. Burmese Days published in United States (October). Moves to Hampstead, London (November)
Works as part-time assistant in Booklover's Corner, Hampstead. A Clergyman's Daughter published (March 1935). Burmese Days published in England (June 1935). Meets Eileen O'Shaughnessy, age 30
In industrial Lancashire and Yorkshire, investigating working class life and unemployment at suggestion of Victor Gollancz (January-March). Moves to Wallington, Herts. (April). Keep the Aspidistra Flying published (June). Marries Eileen O'Shaughnessy. Attends I.L.P.[g] Summer School, Letchworth, Herts. (July). Leaves for Spain (December)
In Spain (January-June). Corporal with Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista detachment of the Aragon front. Involved in street fighting in Barcelona between government and anarchist troops. Wounded in throat by sniper. Honorable discharge for medical reasons from P.O.U.M.[g] militia. Evades arrest during anti-P.O.U.M. purge in Barcelona. The Road to Wigan Pier published (March)). Left Book Club edition of 40,000 copies
In tuberculosis sanitorium, Kent. Homage to Catalonia published (April). Joins ILP (June). Goes to Morocco for his health (September)
Returns to England (March). Coming Up for Air published (June). Death of father
Inside the Whale published (March). Moves to London (May). Writes reviews for Time and Tide and Tribune. Joins Local Defense Volunteers (Home Guards)
The Lion and the Unicorn published (February)
Talks Producer, Empire Department, B.B.C.[g], in charge of broadcasting to India and Southeast Asia. Death of mother
Literary Editor of Tribune
Orwell and Eileen adopt a one-month old child, whom they name, Richard Horatio Blair (photo)
War correspondent for The Observer in Paris and Cologne (March-May). Death of Eileen while under anesthetic for operation (March 29). Covers first post-war election campaign (June-July). Animal Farm published (August)
Critical Essays published (February). Moves to Barnhill, Isle of Jura (May)
Enters Hairmyres Hospital, near Glasgow, with tuberculosis of the left lung (Christmas Eve)
Returns from hospital to Jura (July). Completes revision of Nineteen Eighty-Four by December
Enters Cotswolds Sanitorium, Cranham, Gloucestershire (January). Nineteen Eighty-Four published (June). Over 400,000 copies sold in first year. Transferred from Cranham to University College Hospital, London (September). Marries Sonia Bronwell, an editorial assistant with Horizon, in hospital (October)
Dies suddenly in University College Hospital, of a hemorrhaged lung (January 21). Buried in the chruchyard of All Saints, Sutton Courtney, Berkshire

Steven Kreis

'A chronology of the life and literary career of George Orwell, 1903-1950'
Copyright (c) Steven Kreis: 'The History Guide', 2000
E-mail: [email protected]
Original of this work is on the:

[History Guide]

George Orwell's Biography
[Photo Archive] [Orwell's grave]

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