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Steven Kreis

Orwell Chronology

[George Orwell photo-portrait]

The George Orwell Archive is located at University College, London and “is the most comprehensive body of research material relating to the author George Orwell (Eric Blair) (1903-1950) anywhere. Manuscripts, notebooks and personalia of George Orwell were presented in 1960 on permanent loan by his widow on behalf of the George Orwell Archive Trust, supplemented by donations and purchases. The aim of the Trustees of the Archive was to make a research centre for Orwell studies, by bringing together all [Orwell's] printed works, including newspaper items; private correspondence; other private papers in the possession of his widow; printed matter other than his own which will help later generations to understand the controversies in which he was involved; and tape recordings or written statements by all with first hand experience of him of any consequence.”

1903
Eric Arthur Blair born at Motihari, Bengal, India, June 25th, son of Richard Walmesley Blair and Ida Mabel Blair (née Limouzin)
1904
Brought to England by his mother. Family settles in Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire
1908-1911
Educated at Sunnylands, an Anglican school, Eastbourne, Sussex
1911-1916
Boarder at St. Cyprian's preparatory school, Eastbourne, Sussex
1912
Richard Blair, retired from India Civil Service, returns to England. Family moved to Shiplake near Henley
1914
First work published: Awake Young Men of England (poem)
1915
Blair family moves back to Henley
1917
Spends Lent term at Wellington College
1917-1921
King's Scholar, Eton College
1921
Parents move to Southwold, Suffolk (December)
1922
Blair attends cramming establishment in Southwold (January-June), to prepare for India Office examinations
1922-1927
Assistant Superintendent of Police, Indian Imperial Police, Burma (photo)
1928-1929
Lives in Paris, writing and later working as a dishwasher. Hospitalized with Pneumonia (February)
1930-1931
Goes tramping in London and Home Counties. Writes early version of Down and Out in Paris and London. Contributes essays to Adelphi (The Spike and The Hanging) under his own name
1932-1933
Teaches at the Hawthorns, a small private school in Hayes, Middlesex
1933
First book, Down and Out in Paris and London published by Victor Gollancz. Uses pseudonym “George Orwell” for the first time. Teaches at Frays College, Middlesex. Hospitalized with pneumonia
1934
Gives up teaching. Spends ten months in Southwold. Burmese Days published in United States (October). Moves to Hampstead, London (November)
1934-1935
Works as part-time assistant in Booklover's Corner, Hampstead. A Clergyman's Daughter published (March 1935). Burmese Days published in England (June 1935). Meets Eileen O'Shaughnessy, age 30
1936
In industrial Lancashire and Yorkshire, investigating working class life and unemployment at suggestion of Victor Gollancz (January-March). Moves to Wallington, Herts. (April). Keep the Aspidistra Flying published (June). Marries Eileen O'Shaughnessy. Attends I.L.P.[g] Summer School, Letchworth, Herts. (July). Leaves for Spain (December)
1937
In Spain (January-June). Corporal with Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista detachment of the Aragon front. Involved in street fighting in Barcelona between government and anarchist troops. Wounded in throat by sniper. Honorable discharge for medical reasons from P.O.U.M.[g] militia. Evades arrest during anti-P.O.U.M. purge in Barcelona. The Road to Wigan Pier published (March)). Left Book Club edition of 40,000 copies
1938
In tuberculosis sanitorium, Kent. Homage to Catalonia published (April). Joins ILP (June). Goes to Morocco for his health (September)
1939
Returns to England (March). Coming Up for Air published (June). Death of father
1940
Inside the Whale published (March). Moves to London (May). Writes reviews for Time and Tide and Tribune. Joins Local Defense Volunteers (Home Guards)
1941
The Lion and the Unicorn published (February)
1941-1943
Talks Producer, Empire Department, B.B.C.[g], in charge of broadcasting to India and Southeast Asia. Death of mother
1943-1946
Literary Editor of Tribune
1944
Orwell and Eileen adopt a one-month old child, whom they name, Richard Horatio Blair (photo)
1945
War correspondent for The Observer in Paris and Cologne (March-May). Death of Eileen while under anesthetic for operation (March 29). Covers first post-war election campaign (June-July). Animal Farm published (August)
1946
Critical Essays published (February). Moves to Barnhill, Isle of Jura (May)
1947
Enters Hairmyres Hospital, near Glasgow, with tuberculosis of the left lung (Christmas Eve)
1948
Returns from hospital to Jura (July). Completes revision of Nineteen Eighty-Four by December
1949
Enters Cotswolds Sanitorium, Cranham, Gloucestershire (January). Nineteen Eighty-Four published (June). Over 400,000 copies sold in first year. Transferred from Cranham to University College Hospital, London (September). Marries Sonia Bronwell, an editorial assistant with Horizon, in hospital (October)
1950
Dies suddenly in University College Hospital, of a hemorrhaged lung (January 21). Buried in the chruchyard of All Saints, Sutton Courtney, Berkshire

Steven Kreis

____
'A chronology of the life and literary career of George Orwell, 1903-1950'
Copyright (c) Steven Kreis: 'The History Guide', 2000
E-mail: jstevek@nc.rr.com
Original of this work is on the:
URL: http://www.historyguide.org/europe/orwell.html

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